dot point chemistry HSC investigation - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt ) or read online. chemistry. Dot Point HSC Chemistry iii. Contents. Science Press. Contents. Introduction v. Verbs to Watch vi. Dot Points. Production of Materials vii. The Acidic Environment. Dot Point HSC Chemistry Multiple Choice iii. Contents. Science Press. Contents. Introduction v. Verbs to Watch vi. Dot Points. Production of Materials vii.
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Dot Point HSC Chemistry Investigations. Contents. Science Press. Introduction v. Verbs to Watch vi. Dot Points. Production of Materials vii. The Acidic. ma, 25 mrt GMT dot point hsc chemistry pdf - HSC. CHEMISTRY. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be. leccetelira.ml EasyChem Australia - Official Site Dot Point Hsc Chemistry - leccetelira.ml with your Dot Point Hsc Chemistry pdf.
Note that answers to practical and research exercises have not been provided as this would void the experimentation and research that you need to do in order to get these answers. Additional extension questions have been provided, where applicable, to encourage higher-order thinking and enable deeper understanding of chemistry concepts. The dot point numbers allocated to each experiment reect the numbers allocated to that dot point in the other books in this series.
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Remember that these numbers are author derived and do not appear in the syllabus. Wherever possible, allowance has been made for variations in experimental method. This is necessary because schools have access to different resources and teachers often wish to design their own activities specic to their resources.
Also, you are expected to develop skills in the planning of experiments and if you are always given recipes you will never learn to do this. However, as many students struggle when it comes to planning and writing up experiments and research, many hints are provided. Experimental and research work is an integral part of the study of Chemistry. It is not meant to stand alone.
You should always look for the relevance of your experimental and research work to the topic being studied.
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Did you notice any layers forming in the test tubes and if so The alkene Comment on the accuracy of your results Show what happened when bromine dissolved in water and when the alkane and alkene were added to the bromine water Complete the following statements to write a conclusion for this experiment Are your conclusions valid?
Discuss the relevance of this experiment Comment on the validity of your investigation Did your results suggest any further experiments that would be interesting to carry out?
To make a polymer Did the design of your experiment allow you to test what you set out to test Did you have a control? This could be a container of bromine water with no added chemicals — to see if the bromine water would change colour without the addition of cyclohexene Stages are initiation A model shows a representation of reality Background information Monomer — small molecule It helps you to visualise a structure or process Polymer — large molecule made by many monomers joining together What did you use to represent the monomers?
There are many animations on the internet which model polymerisation Polymerisation — manufacture of a polymer from monomers using heat If you used a computer simulation Include a diagram or photographs showing the modelling process An example is: Discuss limitations of your model Do you understand the process better because you can now visualise it?
Did making the model help you to summarise or learn about the process? Note that the risk is the injury that could result from a collision Are there any assumptions behind your model?
Is your model static or dynamic? Did it include the role of the initiator and catalyst? Was your model based on complete information? Could it have been improved if you knew more about the chemicals involved or the process itself? If so It is acceptable to state that there are no risks or only minimal risks involved in carrying out an activity Risks and safety assessment: Discuss any risks and how these could be reduced The risk is that the person may be injured if they slip on balls Models involving a lot of activity may involve the risks of injury during collisions Are there any risks involved in this process?
If so they are probably minimal Discuss advantages of your model of polymerisation Was the information in this resource inaccurate Biopolymers can be made using renewable resources such as plants and micro-organisms Copying information from references without acknowledging the source is called plagiarism and is not acceptable You can either write in the information here or type it up on the computer This will increase your understanding and help you to remember the information Resources and references Use a variety of resources and list the ones you found most useful Always use your own words Biopolymers are renewable Identify the reference and justify your decision If you do not understand the information well enough to put it into your own words You will need current resources here within the last couple of years as this is a developing area of chemistry Select one reference that you consulted and decided to ignore Background information Biopolymers occur naturally Use a proforma When undertaking research it is essential to ensure that all reference material is accurate Production of the biopolymer: Properties and uses of the biopolymer: Formula of biopolymer Organism or enzyme used to produce this biopolymer How is it produced?
How has the production process changed over time? For example..
dot point chemistry HSC investigation
Extension question: Based on the information that you have researched In an evaluation you should: Background information Dehydration is a chemical reaction involving the removal of water from a molecule The addition of water is called hydration This is also called condensation Describe how you modelled this reaction using diagrams..
It may also be called hydrolysis because the water molecule is split in the process to H and OH Write an equation for the dehydration of ethanol What is meant by dehydration?
Addition of water to ethylene Write an equation for the addition of water to ethylene Describe how you modelled this reaction Did you successfully illustrate these processes? How could you improve this procedure next time?
What is meant by an addition reaction? Evaluate your models of dehydration and addition Include diagrams Models involving a lot of activity may involve the risk of people being injured during collisions Summarise the advantages and limitations of your models or simulations in the table below: Advantages Hints: Do you understand the process better because you can visualise it? Limitations Hints: Was your model: Could it have been improved if you knew more about the process?
Dehydration of ethanol Dehydration of ethanol Addition of water to ethylene Addition of water to ethylene Risks and safety assessment: Discuss any risks involved and how these could be reduced Note that the risk is the injury Note that many sources do not provide the original data and we assume the information is valid if it is from an expert or reputable source Background information Ethanol C2H5OH is an alkanol that can be produced by either the hydration addition of water of ethylene or the fermentation of sugars and starches Identify a strategy you used to determine the validity of your research data See also Section If you used the internet did you use key words with AND If a reference provides the data on which their claims are based Describe the type of reference you used here Did you use journals Explain what is meant by the reliability of a resource document OR and NOT when making your searches?
Remember to use arrows not just lines to link the steps. And plan it so arrows do not cross over if possible. Filtering Fermentation Distillation Physical or chemical reaction involved?
Why is this procedure used? Using your research.
Include improvements in the processes involved as well as genetic engineering to provide other sources of enzymes Discuss technological developments that have improved the industrial production of ethanol Extension activity: Prepare a report for the government informing them of the need for government subsidies to encourage the development of alternative energy sources in Australia A report should start with a general statement Present tense should be used e Include up-to-date information about government subsidies already available You could also include a sentence under each heading that previews what is in the following paragraphs This should be followed by a series of paragraphs Technical terms should be used wherever possible This experiment involves the combustion of a measured mass of an alkanol to heat a measured mass of water through a measured temperature rise If the mass used in the equation is in grams To determine and compare the heats of combustion per gram and per mole of three liquid alkanols per gram and per mole Label the equipment in the photograph which you will use and list any other materials provided by your teacher Background information Combustion is a chemical reaction in which oxygen is used and energy is released.
The heat of combustion can then be calculated using the equation: It is assumed that the heat released by the combustion reaction will all be absorbed by the water Three alkanols The value of C is then Heat of combustion is the amount of heat released during a combustion reaction Safety goggles A container Alkanols are an homologous group of carbon compounds containing the hydroxyl OH grouping Hypothesis Hints: Make an educated guess about the results — a testable prediction as to which alkanol will release the most or least energy during combustion Did you need heatproof mats?
How did you decide what to use to hold the water? Why is it necessary to weigh the spirit burner both before and after burning the alkanol?
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Will the alkanols burn readily and safely and release heat to warm the water? Justify the use of these materials and procedures What was the one thing you changed each time you burned fuel?
What did you observe or measure to see the effect of changing to another type of fuel? What do you have to keep the same each time you burn a fuel?
Equipment Method: Risk Describe the precaution Explain the precaution Alkanols Consult the relevant MSDS Think carefully about the risks involved in burning fuels Put each step on a new line and start each step with a verb Design your experiment to minimise heat loss to the environment Include a labelled diagram use pencil and ruler as always or a photograph to illustrate your method Remember to stir the water before you measure the temperature rise Use the table below to indicate any risk involved in using the equipment and chemicals involved in this investigation and any necessary precaution for this experiment Think about how you will ensure as much heat from the burning alkanol goes into the water as possible When tabulating information Alkanol burning Alkanol 1 Alkanol 2 Alkanol Add in the names of the alkanols you used Complete the following table or a similar table to record your results Using your results.
The mass of the spirit burner and ethanol was Heat released by burning 1 gram of fuel The temperature of the water rose from The volume of water heated was mL.
If you need help. Note that this value is well below the value for molar heat of combustion of ethanol given in data books. Can you explain this? Ethanol was burned in a spirit burner and used to heat a container of water. Graph the molar heat of combustion against molar mass of the alkanols. Place the type of alkanol the independent variable along the horizontal axis and the heat of combustion per gram on the vertical axis.
Graph your results to show the heat of combustion per gram and per mole for each fuel. Heat of combustion will go on the vertical axis. Graph the heat released by burning 1 gram of fuel for each of the three alkanols. Could you use this graph to predict the molar heat of combustion of another fuel.
Compare the experimental heats of combustion for the three fuels Assume the alkanols underwent complete combustion products will be carbon dioxide and water Write a conclusion for this experiment State the heats of combustion determined experimentally Remember that heat of combustion should always be shown as a negative value as combustion is an exothermic reaction and heat is released Compare your experimental values to the accepted values Which fuel releases the most or least heat per gram and per mole burned?
Did the graphs show a relationship between molar mass of fuels and molar heat of combustion? Write balanced equations.. Are your experimental values accurate? Can you explain the big differences between your values and those in the data book?
Did all of the heat released go into heating the water? Did you stir the water being heated so it would heat evenly?
Did you measure the highest water temperature recorded? It may continue to rise after the spirit burner is extinguished Alkanol Heat of combustion kJ mol—1 Methanol — Ethanol — Propanol — Propanol — Butanol — Compare these values with the values that you obtained Was your balance sensitive enough to measure the small change in mass of the fuel?
Explain how using graphs contributes to the accuracy of results Does your experiment provide a valid method to determine and compare the heats of combustion of different alkanols?
Did the design of your experiment allow you to test what you set out to test? Did the water container allow all heat from the burning alkanol to pass through to the water or was heat lost to the environment? Could you prevent any heat loss by improving your experiment?
Is this a valid method for determining heats of combustion — does it allow you to obtain accurate and reliable measurement of these? Is this a valid method for comparing heats of combustion — does it allow you to make accurate and reliable comparisons between them? Discussion This has become popular with the realisation that petroleum supplies are dwindling and that fuels such as ethanol Describe the types of resources you found most useful and identify one website which you felt was presenting a biased view Research report: Write a one-page report on the use of ethanol as an alternative car fuel Is it being suggested as a replacement — why or why not?
Is it being used to supplement petrol supplies Use equations Background information The development of renewable fuels In your answer you should include the following: Include equations Why or why not?
Use subheadings and present tense And an explanation. Does it mix well with petrol? Can it be safely stored and transported? Is it renewable?
You may use point form and tables in your report You will need to be particularly careful that you are using up-to-date information here Resources and references: Extension question 1: A lot has been printed in the mass media about the advantages and disadvantages of using ethanol as a fuel Extension question 2: List them Complete the following list of materials: Background information Fermentation of glucose is an anaerobic reaction no oxygen in which glucose is converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide in the presence of yeast enzymes such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae See Section The photo shows equipment that could be used to carry out this experiment Will you pass the gas produced through limewater to check that it is carbon dioxide?
Your method will determine the other materials you need Will you use the sense of smell to detect alcohol formed If you have a dissolved oxygen DO probe you could use it to monitor aerobic conditions during this experiment To observe the fermentation of glucose and monitor any changes in mass during this process Justify the use of these materials. You are using glucose solution and letting it sit around for a while. This would be a good medium to grow microbes, but you do not want to do that for safety reasons.
Thus everything must be sterile in this experiment. Water for solutions can be boiled but must then be cooled before use. Explain why. Why do you have to set up an identical set of equipment without any yeast in it the control? Write an hypothesis. This must be a statement that can be tested — your prediction of the most likely results. Mass stays the same during any chemical reaction Law of Conservation of Mass.
Of course you will only observe this if you do not let any reactants or products escape from the reaction vessel. Look at the equation for fermentation to see what the products are, then think about how you are performing this experiment and decide if you expect the mass to increase or decrease or stay the same during this experiment. Variables Explain why the presence or absence of yeast is the independent variable.
Evaluate any risk involved in carrying out this investigation and explain any necessary precautions.
As you are using glucose and a yeast culture you should also consider any biological risks. Do not forget to describe the safe disposal of the mixture after the experiment.
Include biological risks. Write out the method you will use in procedural text type. Put each step on a new line and start each step with a verb. Include a diagram or photographs to illustrate your method. Draw up a table such as the one below to record your results.
Fill in vertical lines as needed. When tabulating information, always rule lines down between columns and across after each section — otherwise it is not a table. Equations Write an equation words and symbols for the fermentation of glucose C6H12O6.
You only have one reactant for this reaction. Oxygen is NOT used in fermentation. Indicate above the arrow that enzymes are needed for the reaction to proceed. Write an equation to show the effect of carbon dioxide on limewater. Limewater is calcium hydroxide solution Ca OH 2. Write a conclusion for this experiment.
Did the mass change as predicted in your hypothesis? When you write a conclusion always refer back to your aim and hypothesis. Calculations Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide released during your experiment.
The table below gives a sample calculation on the left for the volume of carbon dioxide released during a fermentation reaction. Write in YOUR results and calculations on the right-hand side. Sample calculation. Assume all the mass loss is due to the release of carbon dioxide gas no evaporation or spillage Molar mass of carbon dioxide Use Periodic Table. Discussion Comment on the accuracy of your experimental results. It is assumed that you can manipulate and use apparatus correctly without spillages and can measure quantities properly.
Did you manage to produce much ethanol? Does the ethanol produced affect the yeast cells? Comment on the reliability of your results. Did you have time to repeat the experiment? Did different groups in the class obtain the same results? Comment on the validity of your experimental method.
Was all of any mass change due to loss of carbon dioxide gas or could any water evaporate? Did you use a control? List the materials provided by your teacher Justify your use of these materials Do you have two different metals Background information Galvanic cell — an arrangement which allows a spontaneous redox reaction to take place in such a way that electricity is produced Label any of this equipment that you used The photo shows equipment you might use to carry out this experiment A galvanic cell can be made with: To identify the conditions under which a galvanic cell is produced Put each step on a new line and start with a verb Chemicals and equipment Risk Describe the precaution Explain the precaution Method: Write out the method you will use in procedural text type Carry out a risk analysis for this investigation before you commence Use MSDS sheets to check any precautions needed for each of the chemicals you are using Did you produce any electricity using two different metals in an electrolyte?
Look for a voltageExplain why. Do you have two different metals Justify the use of these materials. Corrosion rate of metals and alloys. Practice Multiple Choice Questions: 1.