Speak and write English as if it were your native tongue!Are you tired of making the same mistakes in English again and again? End the bad habits that can. Copyright © by Tim Collins. Double letters are omitted from English words because the first language’s spelling system does not have double letters.. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this book is to identify the most common trouble spots for English language learners. Avoid 99% of the Common Mistakes Made by Learners of English. This Correct Your English Errors is edited by Tim Collins. This First Edition of Correct Your English Errors is published by McGraw-Hill Education Publications.
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margin to enable the student to look up his mistake and correct it. This method has been tested and found more effective than the common. Correct Your English Errors, Second Edition is a comprehensive guide to correcting the bad habits that can leave your audience confused. McGraw-Hill p. ISBN ISBN Speak and write English as if it were your native tongue Are you tired of making the.
Instead, we want someone to hold their breath—not their nose. Make sure to be very clear. Correction: Take a breath through your nose and hold your breath. Speaking Mistakes 6. Loan or Borrow Example Mistake: Can you borrow me that book? You can loan me my notes.
Where do you want the listener to take the book? Instead, you would like to use the book, so you want someone to give it to you. Correction: Can you loan me that book? Casual talk is for friends, not your boss. It can even be considered inappropriate or rude.
I saw him since last year.
You have to calculate now. Tip: Try to break the habit of using text language to communicate your ideas. Write everything out completely. This text style is inappropriate language to use for academic purposes. Correction: If you want to know my opinion, I do not know who should be president.
Punctuation Example Mistake: in a business letter Dear Mrs. Jones: I am still interested in the job and want to thank you for the interview! I hope you will consider me for the following programs, A, B and C. These words are often related to places. Always capitalize proper adjectives. They write french fries. Internet is considered a proper noun. Right now Sam is getting a checkup at Dr. Use Mrs.
President Kennedy was the greatest President in recent history.
Always capitalize the title President when it refers to the U. Miss Tate is getting married next week. Do not confuse Mrs. The President gave a speech on TV last night. North is in charge of telephone sales at this company. This title is useful in business settings.
If you do not know whether a woman is single or married. Use Ms.. Titles of Books. Capitalize job titles when they are at the end of a letter. Do not capitalize unimportant words. TV shows. For information on two-word verbs. I am taking U.
History this year. Your appointment is on Thursday. Always capitalize U. School Subjects Capitalize names of classes at school. July 5. I am taking English Grammar 2 this year. Days of the Week and Months of the Year Capitalize days of the week and months of the year. I am good at English.
I really like Advanced Biology. My birthday is July Exercises Rewrite the names and titles. Capitalize geographic regions of countries. The North and the South fought a civil war beginning in I William a. In the Fall. Next Summer we want to go on Vacation in texas.
We can see Detectives and robbers. Your next appointment with the Doctor is Tuesday. John and i went to century Park for a Picnic Lunch. I am going to take English grammar 2. I like reading Books about American History. Period Use a period in these situations: At the end of a sentence. I need a new cell phone. Ensure each sentence and question has a complete subject and verb. Rhonda is an excellent driver. The most important punctuation marks are the period. My car needs new tires.
We need 20 lbs. Use a period to end a sentence that is not an exclamation or a question. At the end of an abbreviation I have an appointment with Dr.
Many organizations whose shortened names are not pronounced as words but as individual letters do not use periods after the letters in the shortened names.
Did it weigh 20 lbs. The titles Mr. Acronyms are usually pronounced as words. If an abbreviation is at the end of a question or exclamation. Always use a period after these abbreviations. Acronyms are abbreviations formed from the first letters of a name or title. If an Internet address is at the end of a sentence. Do not use multiple exclamation marks. My favorite source for news is www. Periods are used in Internet addresses.
Exclamation Mark Exclamation marks show emotion and excitement. We often use exclamation marks in imperatives. The reader should know not to include that period when using the address online. Watch out! I love my new SUV! Be careful! For more information on imperatives.
100 Most Common Grammar Errors - Download PDF
Who left the door open? Are you ready to leave yet? Use an exclamation mark only when the words are said with emotion. An indirect question is a part of a statement. Question Mark Use a question mark at the end of a direct question. Use a comma when a sentence contains a series of items nouns. They went to the mall. He served broccoli. Tim washed the dishes. Alison vacuumed the living room.
Diane cleaned the bathroom. The last comma in the series before and is optional. Do not use a comma: With only two items in a series Before the first item in a series After the last item in a series.
Comma We use commas with words. Use commas: With three or more items in a series joined by and or or. He bought some ugly red T-shirts. I want to learn to cook Italian food. Use a comma between two or more coordinate adjectives in a series. After and or or With such as. Use a comma when two independent clauses are joined into a single sentence with and.
Such as can be used to introduce an example or examples. Coordinate adjectives can have their order changed and can be joined with and. Between two or more adjectives in a series.
An independent clause has a complete subject and verb and can stand alone as a sentence. My dog likes to go outside. The intelligent. Between two independent clauses in a sentence.
This summer. Use a comma before such as. Compound elements are joined with words such as and. Correct a comma splice by joining the clauses with a semicolon or with a comma and and. He went to the supermarket. He spent the whole day at the water park. A comma is not needed when the clauses are very short. Franklin cut the lawn in the morning. She was locked out of her apartment. She got up and he made breakfast. The mechanic will fix the problem. Other subordinating conjunctions include so that.
A clause has a complete subject and a complete verb. A comma is not needed before so that. A subordinating conjunction such as when. An independent clause can stand alone. A comma is needed before so. A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence. Between a dependent clause and an independent clause. So introduces an independent clause. If I win the grand prize in the lottery. A comma is needed when the clause with so that begins the sentence.
Mavis ate a slice of pizza. Use a comma to join a dependent clause followed by an independent clause. Don Mantle. An introductory participial phrase is formed with a present or past participle and its objects and modifiers. At the beginning of the winter driving season. After an introductory participial phrase. Before and after an appositive. Use a comma after an introductory prepositional phrase. In summer check your coolant. An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that uses other words to restate the noun just before it.
Quickly running downstairs. Dale tripped and fell down. For more information on appositives. He owns a used bicycle shop. George Washington. Commas always come before and after an appositive. Bored by the long speeches. Participles are used with forms of be or have to form various tenses. After an introductory prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase is formed with a preposition and a noun. Prepositional phrases can modify nouns.
Participles can also be used as modifiers. An introductory prepositional phrase is at the beginning of a sentence and modifies the whole sentence.
Laura and Julie dozed off. An introductory participial phrase is followed by a comma. A comma is not needed after but or although when one of these words begins a sentence. In dates. Use commas before and after a word that is said in direct address i.
Before and after an interrupting phrase. John wants to go to Florida on vacation. Use a comma between the day and the year in dates. I think. After an introductory adverb.
Before and after words in direct address. Use commas before and after a word or phrase that interrupts a sentence. When an adverb begins a sentence and modifies the whole sentence. Use a comma before and after the state when both city and state appear together.
Today is April Do not use a comma between: The subject and the verb A preposition and its object An adjective and the noun it modifies Colon Use a colon after an independent clause to introduce a list.
Trace needs these ingredients to make banana bread: In locations. The United States declared independence from Britain on July 4.
This box contains your new computer equipment: The Declaration of Independence was signed in Philadelphia. Semicolon Use a semicolon to link independent clauses without a coordinating conjunction. After wandering for hours. For more information on prepositions. Margo graduated from college. Use a colon after an independent clause to introduce an idea.
I have a great suggestion: Some people deny that global warming is a problem. The bride quietly answered. Quotation Marks Use quotation marks for titles of books. In informal writing. Use a comma before and after a quotation. If I lose my job in a layoff I will go back to school. Can I make an appointment on July 8 2. I am going to the library this afternoon 4. Watch out for the bee 3. Some cool refreshing Ice.
I am so angry I could scream 9. I am thinking about selling my car 6. If not. Would you like to go to a concert next weekend 8. Where is the mal 5. Exercises Read each sentence and end each one with a period. I am cooking spaghetti for dinner tonight I wonder when the movie begins tonight Rewrite the sentences.
Hurry up or we will be late 7. He said. John likes to watch movies on TV. All and Fatima have several grown children. He got up early exercised.
Sonya is very busy these days.
I have a suggestion. In winter. Here are examples of each kind of noun: Singular and Plural A noun that refers to one thing is singular.
A noun that refers to two or more things is plural. Spelling Plural Nouns To form most plurals. This table sums up the rules for spelling plural nouns: For nouns that end in -s. Double the final consonant and add -es: For nouns that end in -f.
Only a few nouns end in -z. For nouns that end in -fe. A few nouns only occur in the plural form: Some plural nouns are irregular: I bought some new fish for my fish tank. A few nouns have the same form for the singular and the plural: I bought a new fish for my fish tank.
Uncountable Nouns Uncountable nouns include things such as water. For information on these phonetic symbols. Pronounce the plural ending as: Pronouncing Plural Nouns The plural ending of nouns is pronounced in one of three ways: You can use the indefinite articles a and some with countable nouns. Countable and Uncountable Nouns In English. Countable Nouns You can count countable nouns. They have plural forms.
For more information on voiced and voiceless sounds. Do not use another. A few words are both countable and uncountable nouns. But you cannot use the indefinite article a with uncountable nouns. Uncountable nouns do not have plural forms. You can also use the indefinite article some with uncountable nouns.
Using Partitives with Uncountable Nouns We can use partitive expressions to make uncountable nouns countable. How much flour do you need for that bread recipe? We use how many to ask questions about countable nouns. Clothing is an uncountable noun. It does not have a singular form. Cloth is an uncountable noun.
The related word cloth refers to fabric.
Clothes is a plural count noun. Partitives are words that express containers or units. Partitives usually are followed by a phrase beginning with of. This word is not the singular form of clothes. How many loaves of bread do you want to make? Follow these rules: Add an apostrophe and an -s to singular-count nouns. Possessive Nouns A possessive noun shows who or what another noun belongs to. Add an apostrophe to regular plural count nouns.
A few words that end in -s can add only an apostrophe to form the possessive. We can also form possessives with an of phrase and a possessive noun. You can use the with a possessive proper noun when the is part of the noun. Use whose to ask questions about possessive nouns. This year. Whose car is parked in front of the house?
Whose phone rang in the middle of the wedding? A friend of John is coming to the party. We have the fewest grapefruit. My best friend. We have fewer apples than oranges.
Use fewer … than and the fewest with countable nouns. Use less … than and the least with uncountable nouns. We have the least pepper.
We have less salt than sugar. They hired Susan Alexander. Comparing Nouns We use fewer … than. Appositives An appositive is a noun that restates another noun in new or different words.
Abraham Lincoln. A talented singer. Whose keys are these? To correct a misplaced appositive. Exercises Write the plural form of each word. Make the countable nouns plural. Susan Alexander. Choose an appropriate word to complete the sentence. Complete the shopping list. Next summer. If the noun in the shopping list is a countable noun.
Correct Your English Errors
Every day. How do you pronounce the plural ending? How many. Do not use extra strokes with the numbers 1 and 7 in North America. North Americans write 1 with a single stroke. North America: In Europe and other places. Most numbers are written in the same way around the world.
North Americans do not use this additional stroke. In Europe and many other places. English speakers often use dozen to describe an approximate number. Odd and Even Numbers Odd numbers are numbers that cannot be divided evenly by two.
Dozens of people were inconvenienced when the bus broke down. Tens and Teens To clearly say numbers such as thirteen and thirty. We can shorten numbers from — by leaving off the word hundred. Europe and other parts of the world: Zero For the number zero. Even numbers can be divided evenly by two. So when an English speaker mentions an odd number. Using Numbers and Number Words In informal writing.
Use numbers for larger or more complicated numbers. In formal writing. If the number is very long. Writing and Saying Larger Numbers Say longer numbers in groups of ten thousands. This table shows when to use numbers or number words in more formal kinds of writing: A millionaire is a person who has at least a million dollars. A billionaire has at least a billion dollars. Larger numbers. The largest numbers frequently used in everyday speech are million 1.
Write and say very large approximate numbers this way: Do not use these numbers in formal speech or writing. These words express a large quantity or number. When you write longer numbers. Follow these rules for writing and saying decimals and fractions: When saying numbers with a fraction.
Decimals and Fractions We use decimals and fractions for numbers smaller than one and greater than zero. You see: You say: You can use millions and billions when they are not accompanied by a specific number: Each year. We can also say oh for zero or omit it. Nickels are bigger than dimes. Join the dollars and cents groups with and. The following table gives the value of each coin: In everyday speech.
I just won fifty bucks in the lottery! Telephone Numbers. The size of a coin does not indicate relative value. People use this word in friendly. Amounts of Money In general.
When the amount of cents is less than ten. Twenty-nine dollars and three cents Twenty-nine oh three The value of U. Dimes are slightly smaller than pennies. Phone numbers with many zeros may be pronounced differently. Addresses In general. Do not use a comma between the building number and street name. Write the time in numbers when you want to emphasize a specific time.
Time In general. Here are some common ways of saying the time: In date books and schedules. If the meaning is clear. Incorrect: Jack is wiser than strong. Correct: Jack is more wise than strong. Rule The comparative in -er is not used while comparing two qualities of the same person or thing.
Example Rohit is wiser than brave. Correct: She is senior to me. Rule To is the right preposition to use with senior Phrasal Verb Incorrect: Smith came across with a beggar. Correct: Smith came across a beggar. Rule Came across is a phrasal verb which means happened to see or spot. So, use of with is unnecessary here. Example I came across my aunt. Cardinal and Ordinal numbers Incorrect: The two last columns of the article are not clear.
Correct: The last two columns of the article are not clear. Rule A Cardinal Number is used for counting such as one, two, three, four, five. An Ordinal Number is a number that tells the position of something, such as first, second, fourth, last.
An ordinal number always precedes the cardinal number. Example Last two overs were really interesting. Missing subject Incorrect: We noticed the man lying seriously ill and died shortly afterwards. Correct: We noticed the man lying seriously ill and he died shortly afterwards. Rule The subject was missing after the conjunction and.
So, add subject he to complete the sentence. Neither nor Incorrect: The company decided not to appoint him neither for the position of clerk nor for that of a stenographer. Correct: The company decided to appoint him neither for the position of clerk nor for that of a stenographer. Rule Neither nor makes a statement negative. So, we use of not is extra. Example I eat neither chocolate nor ice cream. Correct: She has the habit of arriving late. Examples I have the habit of going to bed early.
She has the habit of biting nails. Correct: The number of vehicles is increasing on the road. Rule The number of A number of Examples The number of animals is decreasing. A number of people are going to the movies. Collocations Incorrect: The reason I have been unable to pay the bill is due to fact that I did not receive pay on time.
Correct: The reason I have been unable to pay the bill is due to the fact that I did not receive pay on time. Rule Collocations are a pair or group of words that are habitually used together.
Strong tea and heavy drinker are typical English collocations. It is due to the fact is also a collocation. Superfluous errors Repetition of words having the same meaning Incorrect: You must have to complete your assignment. Correct: You have to complete your assignment. Rule Either use must or have to because both have the same meaning. Examples You have to be more cautious. You must call him. Incorrect: The ring as well as necklaces are available at the shop.Use the with superlatives.
Here are some examples of this. Use a or one interchangeably before the numbers hundred. Often students have clear ideas about how they would like you to correct them. Use a colon after an independent clause to introduce an idea. Bananas are only 33 cents per pound this week. With some verbs.
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